J. Appl. It is a slower growing seaweed with a fairly long lifespan. Quantitative studies on brown algal phenols. Furthermore, acid-extracted ANE protected the photosynthetic apparatus by reducing the expression of AtRBCS1A and AtRCA, which catalyze Rubisco activation during photosynthesis (Demirevska et al., 2008; Santaniello et al., 2017). Commercial, hydrolyzed extracts from A. nodosum (ANE) have been repeatedly demonstrated to exhibit growth-stimulating activities in treated plants, when applied repeatedly at very low doses, and are referred to as “biostimulants” (Sharma et al., 2014; Van Oosten et al., 2017). Curr. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2008.05.005, Jayaraman, J., Norrie, J., and Punja, Z. K. (2011). The high pressure elevated the temperature of solvents above their boiling point, facilitating bioactive compound extraction by increasing the solubility of complex algal molecules and increasing mass transfer rate (Kadam et al., 2013; Michalak and Chojnacka, 2015). doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05704.x, Mattner, S. W., Milinkovic, M., and Arioli, T. (2018). doi: 10.1016/j.pbi.2009.06.003, Keywords: Ascophyllum nodosum, biostimulants, plant growth, stress tolerance, disease management, Citation: Shukla PS, Mantin EG, Adil M, Bajpai S, Critchley AT and Prithiviraj B (2019) Ascophyllum nodosum-Based Biostimulants: Sustainable Applications in Agriculture for the Stimulation of Plant Growth, Stress Tolerance, and Disease Management. Most temperate crops have an inherent tendency to acquire tolerance to low temperatures by a process known as cold acclimation, while tropical and sub-tropical plants are sensitive to low-temperature stress (Chinnusamy et al., 2003). Food Chem. “The effect of a liquid seaweed extract from Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucales, Phaeophyta) on the two-spotted red spider mite Tetranychus urticae,” in Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Seaweed Symposium, (Dordrecht: Springer), 555–559. J. Mol. 32, 1–13. Arabidopsis MiR396 mediates the development of leaves and flowers in transgenic tobacco. The concept of biostimulants has been researched since 1933 (Yakhin et al., 2017) but has gained attention in more recent years as a potential solution to mitigate the negative impacts of a changing climate on agriculture. The name of this extraction method is indicative of the process: biostimulatory compounds are harvested by blending and hydrating dried seaweed meal in the presence of water (Sharma et al., 2014). 25, 369–378. Presence of iodine might enhance the functioning of thyroid glands. Funct. Seaweed extract stimuli in plant science and agriculture. Marine plant extracts impact on grape yield and quality. Plant Anal. ANE-induced biosynthesis of secondary metabolites further enhanced the antifungal and antibacterial activity of the extract of Calibrachoa (Elansary et al., 2016a). The proposed modes of action of three fractions of Ascophyllum nodosum extract (ANE): acidic, neutral, and alkaline ANE when applied to plants exposed to drought stress. In the current global scenario, in order to meet the requirements of the ever-increasing world population, chemical pesticides and … doi: 10.14295/CS.v9i2.2134, Cassan, L., Jeannin, I., Lamaze, T., and Morot-Gaudry, J. F. (1992). J. Agric. Plants, being sessile, are relentlessly challenged by a variety of environmental stresses that limit their growth and productivity (Agarwal et al., 2013; Shukla et al., 2016). (2010). … in clean waters only. 65, 1229–1240. Seaweed feed through the spores on their leaves. “Seaweeds as a source of proteins for use in pharmaceuticals and high-value applications,” in Novel Proteins for Food, Pharmaceuticals, and Agriculture: Sources, Applications, and Advances, ed. Nature 411, 843–847. Biotechnol. Paula Begoun is the best-selling author of 20 books about skincare and makeup. Molecular genetics of disease resistance in cereals. Enzyme-assistant extraction (EAE) of bioactive components: a useful approach for recovery of industrially important metabolites from seaweeds: a review. (2017). doi: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.594.38. Received: 28 March 2019; Accepted: 01 May 2019;Published: 29 May 2019. Acadian®, an alkaline commercial extract of A. nodosum, was shown to help soybean plants withstand severe drought conditions by regulating leaf temperature, turgor, and several stress-responsive genes (Martynenko et al., 2016; Shukla et al., 2018b). AoB Plants 10:plx051. Natl. Supercritical fluid extraction: recent advances and applications. Bot. (2012). Recent advances in engineering plant tolerance to abiotic stress: achievements and limitations. Enzymes are chosen strategically based on specific molecules digested from seaweed biomass in order to release the bioactive compounds (Wijesinghe and Jeon, 2012). J. Appl. ANE application has been reported to reduce the effects of ROS generated by salinity stress in turf grass by reducing lipid peroxidation through higher activity of antioxidative enzymes. Seaweeds are multi-cellular, macroscopic organisms found in coastal, marine ecosystems and are a rich source of polysaccharides, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), enzymes, and bioactive peptides among others (Courtois, 2009; De Jesus Raposo et al., 2013; Ahmadi et al., 2015; Shukla et al., 2016; Okolie et al., 2018). Two commercial extracts of A. nodosum, Rygex® and Super Fifty®, enhanced the macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca, S) and micronutrient (Mg, Zn, Mn, Fe) contents of tomato fruits (Di Stasio et al., 2018). 32, 324–339. 30, 2943–2951. U.S.A. 101, 9971–9975. Bioresour. Due to its many ingredients and trace elements it is well suited as an ingredient for food. Regular use of skin care products with a concentrated level of brown kelp will regenerate new skin cells. Hortic. Benefits include soothing and repairing, hydrating, nourishing, natural UV protection; and they are antioxidant-rich. Grain-free. 32, 181–186. Microwave heating is based on dipole polarization and the ionic conduction of the seaweed-derived bioactive compounds into the solvent (Lucchesi et al., 2004; Flórez et al., 2015). In addition to the aforementioned techniques, different extraction methods were also used in combination for extracting protein from A. nodosum extract. The solid residues are separated using different filtration methods based on the end use of the biostimulant. acids and oligosaccharides are strong mineral chelators and can help with nutrient availability/delivery. Bot. Ascophyllum nodosum was reported to improve both the growth and productivity of agricultural crops by increasing nutrient availability and uptake (Crouch and van Staden, 1993; Khan et al., 2009; Craigie, 2011; Sharma et al., 2014; Van Oosten et al., 2017). doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.09.090, Yuan, Y., Zhang, J., Fan, J., Clark, J., Shen, P., Li, Y., et al. doi: 10.1016/0022-0981(77)90013-2, Rayirath, P., Benkel, B., Mark Hodges, D., Allan-Wojtas, P., MacKinnon, S., Critchley, A. T., et al. 198, 819–827. Br. Technol. Hortic. 1–16. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Thus, it is evident that various bioactive components of an A. nodosum extract were able to mitigate salinity stress through various mechanisms: by protecting cellular structures from water loss, via acting as a hydration buffer, sequestering ions, directly protecting other proteins or by re-naturing unfolded proteins through increased expression of LEAs (Wise and Tunnacliffe, 2004; Goyal et al., 2005; Jithesh et al., 2018). Schematic representation of proposed mode of action of Ascophyllum nodosum extract (ANE) in eliciting plant defense against different plant pathogens. Ascophyllum nodosum is a large, common cold water seaweed or brown alga (Phaeophyceae) in the family Fucaceae, being the only species in the genus Ascophyllum.It is a seaweed that only grows in … 5, 409–424. Int. The application of AMPEP, a product derived from A. nodosum, improved the biomass cultivation of K. alvarezii (Marroig et al., 2016). This suggests that benefits of the application of ANE, as a salinity stress mitigation strategy, were due to the partial control of miR169 over NFYA1 expression (Zhao et al., 2009; Li et al., 2013; Jithesh et al., 2018; Shukla et al., 2018a). Algal Res. The results of Tibubos et al. High cytokinin content in plants was found to delay senescence (Gan and Amasino, 1995; Lim et al., 2003). The MDA (malondialdehyde) content of tissues can be used as an indicator of the extent of drought-induced peroxidative damage (Shukla et al., 2011). Hortic. J. Appl. The health-beneficial properties of seaweed have been known for hundreds if not thousands of years. Comun. Ultrasound waves were reported to facilitate the release of bioactive compounds from a variety of seaweed biomass by cavitation within the extraction solvent (Kadam et al., 2013, 2015a). 37, 253–258. Improved methods of analysis for betaines in Ascophyllum nodosum and its commercial seaweed extracts. Scientific name: Ascophyllum nodosum Other names: Brown Seaweed, Norwegian kelp Part used: Thallus. Sci. doi: 10.1007/s11104-014-2131-8, Carillo, P. (2018). Potential of intensification techniques for the extraction and depolymerization of fucoidan. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2004.08.009, Miura, K., and Furumoto, T. (2013). 45, 1096–1109. J. Chromatogr. doi: 10.1007/s10811-017-1312-2, Ali, N., Farrell, A., Ramsubhag, A., and Jayaraman, J. 59, 206–216. doi: 10.1007/s10811-017-1159-6, Nabti, E., Jha, B., and Hartmann, A. Acad. First, it’s a rich source of vitamin K — you get almost a quarter of the daily recommended intake of vitamin K in just one serving. For them, not surprisingly, it is very important to harvest sustainably and to protect the environment. J. Environ. 7:1029. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.01029, Kadam, S. U., Álvarez, C., Tiwari, B. K., and O’Donnell, C. P. (2017). Abdel-Mawgoud, A. M. R., Tantaway, A. S., Hafez, M. M., and Habib, H. A. When cavitation (i.e., the formation and eventual implosion of empty spaces or bubbles) occurs near seaweed cell walls, the transfer of compounds from the cell to the solvent is facilitated following cellular breakdown (Kadam et al., 2013, 2015a). “Utilization of seaweed hydrocolloids in the food industry,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth International Seaweed Symposium, (Dordrecht: Springer), 31–47. (2013). Curr. J. Appl. Plant Growth Regul. Mol. doi: 10.3390/md13074270, Kadam, S. U., Tiwari, B. K., O’Connell, S., and O’Donnell, C. P. (2015b). The impact of the processing method of the A.nodosum biomass is also known to affect compositional and physicochemical properties. 76, 40–51. Drugs 14:E196. J. Appl. Phycol. Various commercial entities utilize different, proprietary extraction (hydrolysis) procedures for the production of seaweed-based biostimulants in either liquid or soluble powder form (Kadam et al., 2013; Michalak and Chojnacka, 2015). doi: 10.1021/ac9508199, Routray, W., and Orsat, V. (2012). Seaweed extract (Stella Maris®) activates innate immune responses in Arabidopsis thaliana and protects host against bacterial pathogens. “Fucus vesiculosus grows back quicker than the Ascophyllum, which will give harvesters more options,” Mr Keogh said. Plant Anal. Ascophyllum nodosum kelp seaweed has one of the longest lists of vitamins and nutrients than most other natural skin products. doi: 10.1515/botm.19126.96.36.1997, Chaves, M. M., Flexas, J., and Pinheiro, C. (2009). J. Antioxidant activities of enzymatic extracts from brown seaweeds. To date, there are no publications regarding the extraction of bioactive compounds from A. nodosum using E-AE. (2012). Soil Sci. Soils need improvement in order to enhance their ability to sustain their environmental and biological purposes. Seaweed extracts as biostimulants in horticulture. Catechin secretion & phytotoxicity: fact not fiction. Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming. Seaweed at Kew’s State of the World’s Plants and Fungi. Joshi, R., Wani, S. H., Singh, B., Bohra, A., Dar, Z. Microarray analysis revealed that B. napus plants treated with AZAL5® showed differential regulation of 724 and 298 genes in shoots and roots, respectively, after 3 days of treatment, while 612 and 439 genes were differentially regulated in the shoots and roots, respectively, after 30 days of treatment (Jannin et al., 2013). doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.04.057, Yuan, Y., and Macquarrie, D. J. (2001). (2011). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Cold signaling and cold response in plants. These enzymes are known to catalyze a two-step pathway involved in the biosynthesis of glycine betaine in plants. doi: 10.1590/s1982-56762014000200001, Stirk, W. A., and Van Staden, J. Similarly, combining enzymatic hydrolysis with alkaline extraction also increases the efficiency of protein extraction in Palmaria palmata (Maehre et al., 2016). (2009) showed that the lipophilic fraction of an A. nodosum extract improved tolerance of A. thaliana grown under freezing conditions. J. Appl. Commun. Figure 2. Soil Sci. (2013) showed that the ANE application retarded senescence in treated Arabidopsis by increasing the endogenous cytokinin content. The funder provided support in the form of salary for authors (PS, MA, and SB). Influence of marine brown alga extract (Dalgin) on damping-off tolerance of tomato. doi: 10.1007/s00299-006-0204-8, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Agarwal, P. K., and Jha, B. Jolinda, M., Leitão, E. T., Gomes, C. D., Rodrigues, M. H., Valéria, F. D. O., dos Santos, G. L., et al. SAURs (small auxin-up RNAs) are a group of small auxin-induced RNAs that reportedly play an important role in cellular, physiological, and developmental processes (Ren and Gray, 2015). Nearly 42% of all global land experiences temperatures below −20°C, and plants growing in these regions experience freezing stresses during periodic exposure to temperatures below 0°C (Chinnusamy et al., 2007; Miura and Furumoto, 2013). 44, 331–338. Drugs 11, 233–252. J. Sci. Analysis of seaweed extract-induced transcriptome leads to identification of a negative regulator of salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Commun. Plant Sci. The effect of the Ascophyllum nodosum extract Goëmar GA 14 on the growth of spinach. Similarly, a foliar application of 0.2% ANE on Arabidopsis leaves also regulated the expression of the GA-responsive genes GASA1 and GASA4, after 1 week of treatment (Goñi et al., 2016). … is done by the Talty family, and they are helped by their two part-time staff and five harvesters to bring the seaweed in. Evaluation of evidence for the presence of indole-3-acetic acid in marine algae. Table 1. Ascophyllum Nodosum has been noted to be a protective shield against toxins and radioactive elements. Mar. Plant Biol. doi: 10.1016/S0176-1617(87)80093-7, Sangha, J. S., Ravichandran, S., Prithiviraj, K., Critchley, A. T., and Prithiviraj, B. J. Exp. J. Appl. Funct. Supercritical fluid extraction of algae enhances levels of biologically active compounds promoting plant growth. Rygex® and Super Fifty®, both commercial extracts of A. nodosum, boosted the accumulation of minerals, antioxidants, and essential amino acids in tomato fruits grown under salinity stress (Di Stasio et al., 2018). The root application of ANE modulated the expression of genes involved in GA biosynthesis and thus resulted in a higher accumulation of GA24 (Wally et al., 2013). The presence of ABA negatively regulated the expression of AtMYB60 during drought stress. 21, 633–639. doi: 10.1007/BF00232944, Goyal, K., Walton, L. J., and Tunnacliffe, A. doi: 10.1080/00103624.2013.790404, Fan, D., Hodges, D. M., Zhang, J., Kirby, C. W., Ji, X., Locke, S. J., et al. Plant Sci. Int. EXTRACTO DE ALGAS ESCAMAS. To minimize the agricultural chemical footprint, extracts of Ascophyllum nodosum (ANE) have been explored for their ability to improve plant growth and agricultural productivity. doi: 10.1080/00071618500650121, Blunden, G., Jenkins, T., and Liu, Y. W. (1996). Foliar application of ANE also increased the ripening rate of grapes (Norrie et al., 2002; Sabir et al., 2014; Frioni et al., 2018) and increased oil content and consistency of fruit maturation in olive (Chouliaras et al., 2009). (1989). Sci. (2015). J. Pharmacogn. 14, 1086–1094. (2016). Further, EAA treatments induced genes involved in ABA-dependent signaling pathways (Jithesh et al., 2018). (2018). Plant Biol. Pre-harvest root treatment by ANE (Acadian®) was reported to have a profound effect in reducing post-harvest losses by reducing lipid peroxidation (Fan et al., 2014). (2017) combined ultrasound pretreatment with acid and alkali hydrolysis and, more simply, combined acid and alkali hydrolysis to extract protein from A. nodosum. Plant. Ascophyllum nodosum (kelp) is the brown alga, found in rocky seashores of the area between Europe and America. Ascophyllum nodosum is a large brown seaweed found predominantly in the North Atlantic. This method involves extracting A. nodosum biomass in NaOH or KOH solutions, at “relatively low” temperatures, between 70 and 100°C. PLoS One 13:e0206221. doi: 10.17660/ActaHortic.1997.444.74, Chouliaras, V., Tasioula, M., Chatzissavvidis, C., Therios, I., and Tsabolatidou, E. (2009). Plant Sci. Soil Sci. 23, 308–316. low glycemic index, optimal digestion, lowers risk of allergic reaction. Similarly, ANE treatments improved the architecture of Arabidopsis root systems when grown under conditions combining phosphorus deprivation and salinity stress. PLE is a faster extraction method compared to other methods; however, Tierney et al. J. Chromatogr. (2014). Sci. 32, 31–52. 36, 453–483. It grows in cold water. Plant Sci. Opin. 6:203. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2015.00203, Tibubos, K. R., Hurtado, A. Q., and Critchley, A. T. (2017). A root application of 1.0 g/L ANE was reported to induce the accumulation of transcripts of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) and choline mono-oxygenase (CMO) in spinach grown in vitro (Fan et al., 2013). J. Appl. Home Blog Beauty | Detox | Weight Health Benefits of Ascophyllum. Rating: Good; Categories: Antioxidants ... to busting beauty myths and providing expert advice that solves your skincare frustrations so you can have the best skin of your life! Ascophyllum nodosum might help the body kill cancer cells and reduce swelling. The alga Ascophyllum nodosum is known for its particularly high concentration of alginic acid. doi: 10.4141/cjps2013-135, Ale, M. T., Mikkelsen, J. D., and Meyer, A. S. (2012). Wally et al. Biol. Curr. Similarly, the alternating application of Stimplex®, a liquid-based extract of A. nodosum with fungicide (chlorothalonil, 2 g L−1), reduced the progression of fungal disease in cucumber through the induction of defense genes and enzymes (Jayaraman et al., 2011). Alginates have been found to improve the physical conditions of soil (Khan et al., 2009; Illera-Vives et al., 2015). The global effects of negative climatic changes have manifested as desertification, increased atmospheric CO2 and temperature, soil salinization, and nutrient imbalances (e.g., mineral toxicity and deficiency) and have caused dramatic effects on agricultural production and the quality of crops (dos Reis et al., 2012). On extraction method and the application of ANE increased antioxidants and stimulated compound. The lipophilic fraction ( LPC ) of bioactive components from brown seaweed, you can go on a extract. And biological purposes conceived the layout plantlets of K. alvarezii 1979 ) maintaining membrane integrity during freezing stress but.... … Ss – this substance was identified as a dry meal to pills... And Feller, U Full Text | Google Scholar, Agarwal, P. M. 2018... And Smith, M. R. ( 2017 ) indicated that ANE applications induced a greater preventative response the... The skin ’ s Canine ascophyllum nodosum skin benefits Aldington, S., and Baldani, J., Castro, J.,... 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